As the water molecule is further exposed to an increasing potential difference resulting from the step charging of the capacitor, the electrical force of attraction of the atoms within the molecule to the capacitor plates of the chamber also increase in strength. As a result, the covalent bonding between which form the molecule is weakened --- and ultimately terminated.
The negatively charged electron is attracted toward the positively charged hydrogen atoms, while at the same time, the negatively charged oxygen atoms repel electrons.
In a more specific explanation of the "sub-atomic" action the occurs in the water fuel cell, it is known that natural water is a liquid which has a dielectric constant of 78.54 at 20 degrees C. and 1 atm pressure. [Handbook of Chemistry & Physics, 68th ed., CRC Press(Boca Raton, Florida (1987-8
), Section E-50. H20(water)].
When a volume of water is isolated and electrically conductive plates, that are chemically inert in water and are separated by a distance, are immersed in water, a capacitor is formed, having a capacitance determined by the surface area of the plates, the distance of their separation and the dielectric constant of water.
When water molecules are exposed to voltage at a restricted current, water takes on an electrical charge. By the laws of electrical attraction, molecules align according to positive and negative polarity fields of the molecule and the alignment field. The plates of the capacitor constitute such as alignment field when a voltage is applied.
When a charge is applied to a capacitor, the electrical charge of the capacitor equals the applied voltage charge; in a water capacitor, the dielectric property of water resists the flow of amps in the circuit, and the water molecule itself, because it has polarity fields formed by the relationship of hydrogen and oxygen in the covalent bond, and intrinsic dielectric property, becomes part of the electrical circuit, analogous to a "microcapacitor" within the capacitor defined by the plates.
In the Example of a fuel cell circuit of FIG. 1, a water capacitor is included. The step-up coil is formed on a conventional toroidal core formed of a compressed ferromagnetic powered material that will not itself become permanently magnetized, such as the trademarked "Ferramic 06# "Permag" powder as described in Siemens Ferrites Catalog, CG-2000-002-121, (Cleveland, Ohio) No. F626-1205". The core is 1.50 inch in diameter and 0.25 inch in thickness. A primary coil of 200 turns of 24 gauge copper wire is provided and coil of 600 turns of 36 gauge wire comprises the secondary winding.
In the circuit of FIG 1, the diode is a 1N1198 diode which acts as a blocking diode and an electric switch that allows voltage flow in one direction only. Thus, the capacitor is never subjected to a pulse of reverse polarity.
The primary coil of the toroid is subject to a 50% duty cycle pulse. The toroidal pulsing coil provides a voltage step-up from the pulse generator in excess of five times, although the relative amount of step-up is determined by preselected criteria for a particular application. As the stepped-up pulse enters first inductor (formed from 100 turns of 24 gauge wire 1 inch in diameter), an electromagnetic field is formed around the inductor, voltage is switched off when the pulse ends, and the field collapses and produces another pulse of the same polarity i.e., another positive pulse is formed where the 50% duty cycle was terminated. Thus, a double pulse frequency is produced; however, in pulse train of unipolar pulses, there is a brief time when pulses are not present.
By being so subjected to electrical pulses in the circuit of FIG. 1, water confined in the volume that includes the capacitor plates takes on an electrical charge that is increased by a step charging phenomenon occurring in the water capacitor. Voltage continually increases (to about 1000 volts and more) and the water molecules starts to elongate.
The pulse train is then switched off; the voltage across the water capacitor drops to the amount of the charge that the water molecules have taken on, i.e., voltage is maintained across the charged capacitor. The pulse train is the reapplied.
Because a voltage potential applied to a capacitor can perform work, the higher the voltage the higher the voltage potential, the more work is performed by a given capacitor. In an optimum capacitor that is wholly non-conductive, zero (0) current flow will occur across the capacitor.
Thus, in view of an idealized capacitor circuit, the object of the water capacitor circuit is to prevent electron flow through the circuit,
i.e. such as occurs by electron flow or leakage through a resistive element that produces heat.
Electrical leakage in the water will occur, however, because of some residual conductivity and impurities or ions that may be otherwise present in the water. Thus, the water capacitor is preferably chemically inert. An electrolyte is not added to the water.
In the isolated water bath, the water molecule takes on charge, and the charge increases. The object of the process is to switch off the covalent bonding of the water molecule and interrupt the subatomic force, i.e. the electrical force or electromagnetic force, that binds the hydrogen and oxygen atoms to form a molecule so that the hydrogen and oxygen separate.
Because an electron will only occupy a certain electron shell (shells are well known) the voltage applied to the capacitor affects the electrical forces inherent in the covalent bond. As a result of the charge applied by the plates, the applied force becomes greater than the force of the covalent bonds between the atom of the water molecule; and the water molecule becomes elongated. When this happens, the time share ratio of the electron shells is modified.
In the process, electrons are extracted from the water bath; electrons are not consumed nor are electrons introduced into the water bath by the circuit as electrons are conventionally introduced in as electrolysis process. There may nevertheless occur a leakage current through the water.
Those hydrogen atoms missing electrons become neutralized; atoms are liberated from the water. The charged atoms and electrons are attracted to the opposite polarity voltage zones created between the capacitor plates. The electrons formerly shared by atoms in the water covalent bond are reallocated such that neutral elemental gases are liberated.
In the process, the electrical resonance may be reached at all levels of voltage potential. The overall circuit is characterized as a "resonant charging choke" circuit which is an inductor in series with a capacitor that produces a resonant circuit. [SAMS Modern Dictionary of Electronics, Rudolf Garff, copyright 1984, Howard W. Sams & Co. (Indianapolis, Ind.), page 859.]
Such a resonant charging choke is on each side of the capacitor. In the circuit, the diode acts as a switch that allows the magnetic field produced in the inductor to collapse, thereby doubling the pulse frequency and preventing the capacitor from discharging. In this manner a continuous voltage is produced across the capacitor plates in the water bath; and the capacitor does not discharge. The water molecules are thus subjected to a continuously charged field until the breakdown of the covalent bond occurs.
As noted initially, the capacitance depends on the dielectric properties of the water and the size and separation of the conductive elements forming the water capacitor. EXAMPLE 1
In an example of the circuit of FIG. 1 (in which other circuit element specifications are provided above), two concentric cylinders 4 inches long formed the water capacitor of the fuel cell in the volume of water. The outside cylinder was 0.75 inch in outside diameter; the inner cylinder was 0.5 inch in outside diameter.
Spacing from the outside of the inner cylinder to the inner surface of the outside cylinder was 0.0625 inch. Resonance in the circuit was achieved at a 26 volt applied pulse to the primary coil of the toroid at 0 KHz, and the water molecules disassociated into elemental hydrogen and oxygen and the gas released from the fuel cell comprised a mixture of hydrogen, oxygen from the water molecule, and gases formerly dissolved in the water such as the atmospheric gases or oxygen, nitrogen, and argon.
In achieving resonance in any circuit, as the pulse frequency is adjusted, the flow of amps is minimized and the voltage is maximized to a peak. Calculation of the resonance frequency of an overall circuit is determined by known means; different cavities have a different frequency of resonance dependant on parameters of the water dielectric, plate size, configuration and distance, circuit inductors, and the like. Control of the production of fuel gas is determined by variation of the period of time between a train of pulses, pulse amplitude and capacitor plate size and configuration, with corresponding value adjustments to other circuit components.
The wiper arm on the second conductor tunes the circuit and accommodates to contaminants in water so that the charge is always applied to the capacitor. The voltage applied determines the rate of breakdown of the molecule into its atomic components. As water in the cell is consumed, it is replaced by any appropriate means or control system. Variations of the process and apparatus may be evident to those skilled in the art.